translated from a website in French

COMMON JUNIPER
CADE JUNIPER = PRICKLY JUNIPER

le genevrier commun, Juniperus communis: crédit Wikipedia
JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS
JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS

CUPRESSACEAE

JUNIPERS are part of a large family of conifers, cupressaceae, in some genera the trees have gigantic proportions or have an exceptional longevity (sequoia, redwood, cypress).

For their part junipers of the genus JUNIPERUS are of a more modest appearance, 3 to 10 m or less, they are found in temperate or cold zones as well as in regions with Mediterranean climate.

These are medicinal or "magic" plants used in many pharmacopoeias or by traditional healers.

The COMMON JUNIPER, Juniperus communis, occurs in temperate or cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere (including France), on varied terrains (sandy, limestone, mountainous slopes, forest edges, abandoned farmland).
The evergreen leaves, narrow, grouped in threes, and having a SINGLE whitish furrow on their upper surface, terminate in a sharp, sharp point.
There are male trees and female trees.
The fruit (in fact a fruiting cone) reaches its maturity after two years (sometimes 3 years), it then passes from the green color to a blue-purple hue almost black with sometimes a waxy appearance.
It usually contains three hard cores surrounded by a slightly sweet pulp, pungent and aromatic, it aromatizes traditional dishes (sauerkraut) or alcohols ( gin).

The CADE JUNIPER, Juniperus oxycedrus, is a shrub (also dioic) of regions with a Mediterranean climate, it is found in the Middle East. Botanists describe local varieties.
It resembles the common juniper but is often larger, the fruits are larger and brown or reddish when ripe; the narrow, sharp leaves have TWO white furrows.

There are many other "medicinal" junipers, Juniperus phoenicea (North Africa), Juniperus thurifera (Incense, North Africa, Mediterranean regions), Juniperus sabina (same regions, toxic by its berries, leaves and essential oil). ) as well as many species in Asia (China, India, Himalayas).

The parts used in herbal medicine are juniper fruits or berries, leaves, leaf and berry essential oil; to a lesser extent wood or bark.


genevrier cade Juniperus oxycedrus : crédit WikipediaCADE JUNIPER

COMMON JUNIPER CADE JUNIPER JUNIPER ESSENTIAL OIL CADE OIL JUNIPER BERRY DIGESTION URINARY DISORDERS FEVER TONUS WOUNDS SKIN INFECTIONS ANTIBACTERIAL ANTIFUNGAL ESSENTIAL OIL DERMATOSIS VETERINARY MEDICINE



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS COMMON JUNIPER

The LEAFY TWIGS WITH FRUITS contain:

- TANNINS,
- anti-inflammatory and vascular protective FLAVONOIDS,
- ESSENTIAL OIL (1 to 2%), whose composition is dominated by monoterpenes (75%) but in variable proportion according to the vegetative stage and the geographical location: alpha-pinene (10 to 70%), sabinène ( 5 to 50%), myrcene (1 to 20%), limonene (1 to 5%), beta-pinene (1 to 5%), low percentage of terpene alcohols (cedrol, terpinen-4-ol).
To my knowledge there are no toxic ketone compounds.

Common juniper essential oil is:

- ANTISEPTIC (urinary and digestive),
- inhibits the development of many fungi (ANTIFUNGAL) including fungi responsible for cutaneous mycosis (Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum), but also yeasts (candidiasis),
- It is also ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTALGIC.

- the deciduous twigs contain a small amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin, a toxic substance but with anticancer potential.

The fruits JUNIPER BERRIES contain sugars and bitter substances as well as essential oil with a composition similar to that of the leaves.

Ripe fruits (blue-black) are collected and dried, it is better to crush them when using them except in traditional dishes where they are incorporated whole.

The essential oil of juniper berries is very aromatic and is interesting in cases of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes.
It would delay the protein glycation phenomenon that causes diabetes complications.

GLYCATION or Maillard chemical reaction is a natural chemical process that sees the association between sugar molecules and proteins.
The substances that result from this natural reaction are responsible for the aging of tissues (especially blood vessels).
Diabetics are often hyperglycemic and the risk of protein glycation is higher in their case with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, kidney problems or even cataracts.

JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS CADE JUNIPER

According to a study in Tunisia, juniper leaf (mixed with fruit) contains essential oil dominated by alpha-pinene (27-58%) with minor components such as geranyl (2-7%).
But it is especially the WOOD OF CADE JUNIPER which is traditionally used:
- in powder form (incense),
- or to obtain an "oil" by pyrolysis (heating and dry distillation) of the wood.

This CADE OIL is a substance traditionally used externally in humans as well as animals.

It is a very colorful liquid with a strong smell of burnt wood or tar that contains sesquiterpenes and very antiseptic phenols (gaiacol, cresol), and whose smell also removes insects.
But wood pyrolysis products are numerous and also include TOXIC AND CARCINOGENIC SUBSTANCES (including hydrocarbons such as carcinogenic pyrene).
Cade oil has several names in Magreb where it is known and commonly used include: Katran or Katrane or El Guetrane.




USES

 

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS COMMON JUNIPER

genevrier commun: crédit WikipediaCommon juniper, Juniperus communis

Common juniper is a traditional medicinal plant, it was used formerly to cure many affections: digestive disorders, urinary, infections (even tuberculosis), against fevers in general (including malaria), chronic broncho-pulmonary disorders, as diuretic (including in case of heart failure) or to treat rheumatism and chronic joint pain.

Many of these indications are no longer relevant, however, juniper berries are useful :

- to facilitate DIGESTION (digestive stimulant), also in case of intestinal fermentations,

- to strengthen the physical "TONUS", especially in case of seasonal influenza-like illnesses, colds,

- to treat a minor INFECTION of the urinary tracts (but NOT in case of renal insufficiency), to drain the urinary tract in case of recurrent urolithiasis (stones),

- to prevent the vascular complications of diabetes type 2 and perhaps also to increase the effectiveness of insulin (ineffectiveness or "resistance" to insulin is one of the serious problems of diabetes mellitus. type 2),

COMMON JUNIPER ESSENTIAL OIL is antiseptic, antifungal (but less than tea tree essential oil), repellent for some insects but also useful topically in cases of rheumatic or osteoarthritic pain .

EXAMPLES OF DOSAGE

-INFUSION of juniper berries (crushed and possibly mixed with leaves): about ten grams of berries in 1/4 liter of very hot water, infuse 10 to 15 minutes, to consume in the day (end of meal, after flu-like or influenza infection, urinary irritation, rheumatic pain).

- COMMON JUNIPER WINE: 1 liter of white wine and 30 to 50 gr of crushed berries, let steep for 15 days stirring occasionally, filter, sweeten to taste and keep cool: a glass of wine a day.

- COMMON JUNIPER ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE: 30 drops 2 to 3 times a day. you can also make a "domestic" ALCOHOLIC tincture of juniper berries (100 gr of crushed berries in 1 liter of alcohol at 45-55 ° C (rum), macerate during 10 to 15 days, filter, keep away from light.

- COMMON JUNIPER ESSENTIAL OIL :
- a few drops in application with massage (possibly after dilution in a vegetable oil) on painful articular or muscular areas,
- a few drops applied directly to inflamed or infected wounds, fungus infections of the skin, scalp or nails (but it is less effective than tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia)

PRECAUTIONS: juniper extracts are contraindicated in pregnant or breastfeeding women, as well as in people with renal insufficiency or chronic kidney disease.
In a more general way it is necessary to respect the doses quoted in the examples of dosage, not to do "prolonged" cures of extracts of juniper (15 days maximum with a month between each cure) and to stop immediately in case of hematuria (blood in urine) or if albumin is detected in urine.

JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS CADE juniper

genevrier cade Juniperus oxycedrus : crédit Wikipedia Cade juniper, Juniperus oxycedrus

CADE OIL is known and used since a long time to treat humans and animals.

We still find in "guarrigues or maquis" old "cade ovens" where cade juniper wood was slowly burnt to collect crude cade oil, a liquid more or less viscous and colorful.

Cade oil is ANTISEPTIC, HEALING and acts (sometimes) on chronic dermatosis (eczema, dishydrosis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis).

It is no longer prescribed in France in humans because it contains (irregularly according to the pyrogenation process) carcinogenic substances that make its use dangerous while there are other drugs to treat wounds, ulcers or dermatosis.

But it is still used in ANIMALS husbandry to treat wounds, chronic ulcerations, infections (especially feet (horses, sheep, cattle), or legs (hens), as well as to ward off pests or irritants insects ( horses or livestock).
.
It is generally used in a vegetable oil or mixed with clay or a neutral mineral powder.

In horses (to keep away insects), always check the absence of intolerance reaction by applying it to a small part of the skin, do not put it on the mucous membranes or too close to the eyes and think that is a colored liquid that stains.



 

OTHER USES OF JUNIPERS

Juniper spirit and other traditional spirits (eg gin, aquavit) are grain alcohols that are secondarily flavored by maceration or juniper berry extracts.

Juniper berries traditionally flavor sauerkraut and some pies or dishes rich in fat and starch, juniper promotes digestion (perhaps).

The ashes of the deciduous branches of juniper contain mineral salts (calcium, potassium, sodium) and are traditionally considered as diuretics.

In many countries juniper twigs are burned as INCENSE to clean the atmosphere (literally and figuratively (to ward off evil spirits)).

This is still a common practice especially in the Himalayan regions where Tibetan Buddhism is practiced.


JUNIPERS CULTIVATION

The different species of junipers are trees, very resistant, decorative, with a slow growth and persistent foliage( hedges, bushes or "bonsai").

They can be grown from the fruit but you have to be patient because the germination can take several years and the beginning of growth is very slow.
It is easier to dig up and transplant a young wild juniper !!


ABSTRACT

JUNIPERS TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS
There are many species of juniper (Juniperus), the most used in Europe are the common juniper and the cade juniper.
The berries of common juniper facilitate the digestion, and help disinfect the urinary tract and the digestive system.
The essential oil of common juniper is antiseptic, fungicidal and calms rheumatic pains.
Cade oil is extracted by heating and distillation of cade wood. It is antiseptic, healing, removes insects and calms some dermatosis.
Since cade oil may contain carcinogens, it is no longer used in human medicine but is still used to treat an